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Types, Causes, and Methods for Correcting Malocclusion

The correction of teeth malocclusion is carried out after the patient has revealed signs of this pathology. It often happens that this disorder is invisible to the eye and is diagnosed only with the use of special metric methods for studying the face and dentofacial system in particular.

 

Malocclusion Types

Methods of correcting the bite are prescribed after determining the type of malocclusion and its severity.

 

Deep bite. The front teeth of the upper jaw overlap the lower by more than a third (with a correct bite, the overlap is no more than a third). This bite is considered one of the most common. It externally manifests itself in the form of a shorter lower part of the face and the improper position of the lips. Among the main unpleasant consequences of this anomaly are an excessive strain on the front teeth, as well as permanent injury to the gums and the inner surface of the lips.

In addition, this bite will subsequently lead to disruption of the temporomandibular joint (it is responsible for the normal movement of the lower jaw) and severe headaches.

 

Open bite. This bite is characterized by the fact that between the teeth (front or lateral) there is a gap, although, with a correct bite, the lateral teeth should close. An open bite is primarily dangerous because the chewing function is impaired since the jaws do not close and it is not possible for a person to thoroughly grind the products. As a result, soft foods become the basis of the diet, which negatively affects the condition of the gums and intestines.

 

Distal bite. The anomaly can be determined by excessively far located teeth of the lower jaw relative to the upper. This is caused by the underdevelopment of the lower jaw or, on the contrary, too developed upper.

This bite, depending on the degree of the abnormal location of the jaw, can lead to problems with the pronunciation of sounds, the aesthetics of the face, problems swallowing, and chewing. In addition, patients with a dental bite are often prone to periodontal disease (gum disease), as well as the temporomandibular joint.

 

Mesial bite. This is the opposite of the distal when the lower jaw is far forward relative to the upper. That is, the front teeth of the lower jaw overlap the upper, and not vice versa.

Such bite disorder not only leads to severe psychological discomfort but also negatively affects the state of the entire jaw system: masticatory function is impaired, acute pains appear not only in the jaw joint but also in the entire lower part of the face, some sounds are also difficult to pronounce.

If such tooth restoration procedures as prosthetics or dental implants are required then mesial bite can cause problems. With minor deviations, special orthodontic structures (plates, facial arches) can be used and with an excessively extended jaw, a surgical operation will be necessary (the lower jaw is removed and displaced).

 

Crossbite. This type of bite is characterized by the fact that one of the jaws is shifted to the right or left side. At the same time, teeth can even intersect in a completely chaotic manner, according to the principle of “scissors”.

This bite leads to the appearance of asymmetry of the face and often causes psychological discomfort in a person. In addition, it is also fraught with the appearance of problems with the digestive system, pronunciation of sounds, and the appearance of inflammatory processes of the temporomandibular joint.

 

Causes of Malocclusion

The causes of malocclusion related to hereditary predisposition in combination with other risk factors. In most cases, the anomaly is formed in childhood. The reasons include the following:

 

  • Birth trauma or severe pregnancy, which causes a disorder of the musculoskeletal system or neurological pathologies, leading to abnormal growth of the jaws.
  • Improper care during feeding a baby. In a newborn baby, the upper jaw is larger than the lower jaw. Natural breastfeeding forces the baby to strain muscles when sucking, which stimulates the rapid growth of the lower jaw. As a result of this, they are aligned. If during sucking the child is not active enough, there will be no alignment or it will not be fully implemented, which can lead to the formation of an incorrect bite.
  • Disorders of the musculoskeletal system and poor posture are also common reasons for malocclusion. In preschool and primary school age, the incorrect position of the body leads to the fact that the head goes forward, which leads to the deformation of the jaw and malocclusion.
  • Short bridles of the lips and tongue can lead to malocclusion.
  • Nutrient deficiency can cause a delay in the development of the musculoskeletal system and bone tissue may cause bite disorders.
  • Frequent respiratory diseases or pathologies leading to impaired nasal breathing. Soft tissues of the oral cavity are involved in the development of the jaw. If the child is forced to breathe through the mouth most of the time, including at night, the mouth is constantly ajar and the jaw develops abnormally.
  • Bad habits or a disorder of the chewing muscle tone may affect the state of the oral cavity. If the baby sucks the nipple for a long time, nibbles on pencils, or has the habit of biting its lip, the jaw will not form properly. The same thing can happen with an increased or decreased tone of the chewing muscles, due to neurological reasons.
  • Tooth loss can cause malocclusion at any age, in both children and adults. The exception is only the timely loss of primary teeth. With their early loss, other teeth tend to occupy the empty space in the row. They are displaced and as a result, an occlusion anomaly is formed. In adults, the process occurs in the same way.
  • Improper teething of wisdom teeth is the reason which applies to adult patients. The disorder of the “eights” can lead to the displacement of the remaining teeth and a change in the bite.

 

Bite Correction Methods

Doctors often recommend performing a special set of exercises for the muscles of the face involved in the formation of the bite. In this way, bite correction is possible without the use of braces and other devices. The method is effective for an early age when the jaws are not yet fully formed.

Correction of the bite with braces or mouth guards is the most popular way of bite correcting. These systems are selected strictly individually, taking into account the severity of the pathology and the age of the patient. Prosthetics are used in cases where it is not possible to save the patient’s own teeth in order to form the correct bite.

 

Surgical treatment of bite correction is used in the most severe cases as chin dysplasia, frontal open bite, and lateral open bite. Orthodontics and prosthetics are powerless here. In order to normalize the closing of the jaws surgeons correct the shape of the jaws and facial bones of the skull.

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